Questionnaire: Definition, Examples, Design and Kinds. By Saul McLeod

Questionnaire: Definition, Examples, Design and Kinds. By Saul McLeod

A questionnaire is research tool composed of a number of concerns for the true purpose of collecting information from participants. Questionnaires could be regarded as a type or form of written interview. They could be performed one on one, by phone, computer or post.

Questionnaires offer a comparatively inexpensive, fast and way that is efficient of considerable amounts of data from a sizable test of individuals.

Information may be gathered reasonably quickly since the researcher will never should be current as soon as the questionnaires had been finished. This can be ideal for big populations whenever interviews will be not practical.

Nevertheless, a challenge with questionnaires is the fact that participants may lie as a result of desirability that is social. A lot of people would you like to provide an image that is positive of and thus may lie or fold the reality to appear good, e.g., students would exaggerate modification extent.

Questionnaires could be a means that is effective of the behavior, attitudes, choices, viewpoints and, motives of relatively more and more subjects more inexpensively and quickly than other techniques. –>

Normally a questionnaire utilizes both available and questions that are closed collect information. That is useful because it means both quantitative and data that are qualitative be acquired. –>

Closed Concerns

Closed questions structure the solution by just responses that are allowing squeeze into pre-decided groups.

Data that may be put in to a category is known as nominal data. The category may be on a only two choices, i.e., dichotomous (e.g., 'yes’ or 'no,’ 'male’ or 'female’), or consist of quite complex lists of options from where the respondent can decide ( ag e.g., polytomous).

Shut questions may also offer ordinal information (which are often rated). This frequently involves utilizing a rating that is continuous to gauge the energy of attitudes or thoughts.

Shut questions have already been utilized to analyze kind a character ( ag e.g., Friedman & Rosenman), also to evaluate life activities that might cause anxiety (Holmes & Rahe), and accessory (Fraley, Waller, & Brennan). –>


They could be affordable. This implies they are able to offer considerable amounts of research information for fairly low expenses. Therefore, a big test size can be acquired which will be representative of this populace, which a researcher may then generalize from.

The respondent provides information which is often easily changed into quantitative information ( e.g., count the quantity of 'yes’ or 'no’ responses), permitting analytical analysis for the responses.

The concerns are standardised. All participants are expected a similar concerns when you look at the exact same purchase. This implies a questionnaire can easily be replicated to check on for dependability. Consequently, a researcher that is second make use of the questionnaire to test that the outcomes are consistent.


They lack detail. Considering that the reactions are fixed, there clearly was less range for participants to produce responses which reflect their feelings that are true a subject.

Start Concerns

Start questions allow individuals to show whatever they think within their very own terms. Open-ended questions permit the respondent to answer in just as much information while they like within their words that are own.

For instance: “can you tell me personally exactly exactly exactly how delighted you’re feeling at this time?”

If you’d like to gather more in-depth answers from your own participants, then available concerns will continue to work better. These give no answer that is pre-set and alternatively enable the respondents to place straight straight down precisely what they like in their own personal terms.

Start concerns tend to be useful for complex questions that can’t be answered in some categories that are simple require increased detail and conversation.

Lawrence Kohlberg delivered their individuals with ethical problems. Perhaps one of the most famous issues a character called Heinz that is confronted with the selection between watching their wife perish of cancer tumors or stealing the drug that is only may help her.

Individuals had been expected whether Heinz should take the drug or otherwise not and, more to the point, due to their factors why upholding or breaking the statutory legislation is right.


Rich data that are qualitative acquired as available concerns permit the respondent to elaborate on the response. This implies the investigation will get out why an individual holds a particular mindset.


Time-consuming to get the info. It takes longer for the respondent to perform available questions. This can be a nagging problem as an inferior test size could be acquired.

Time-consuming to analyze the information. It takes longer for the researcher to analyze qualitative information into categories by coding, which is often subjective and difficult as they have to read the answers and try to put them. Nonetheless, Smith has dedicated a whole guide to the difficulties of thematic content analysis the includes 14 different scoring systems for open-ended questions.

Maybe perhaps Not ideal for less educated respondents as open concerns need superior writing abilities and a far better power to express an individual’s emotions verbally.

Questionnaire Design

With a few questionnaires struggling with an answer price as little as 5%, it is vital that a questionnaire is properly designed.

You will find amount of critical indicators in questionnaire design.